PanLex: Jonathan Pool

Photograph of Jonathan Pool

Jonathan Pool (ORCID identifier 0000-0001-7864-5229) is a volunteer at the PanLex project at The Long Now Foundation in San Francisco. He was its director until 02016.

Pool received a B.A. in government from Harvard and a Ph.D. in political science from Chicago.

He has held political science professorships at SUNY at Stony Brook and the University of Washington, with visiting appointments at Stanford (political science and linguistics), Mannheim (social sciences), McGill (cross-cultural psycholinguistics), Bielefeld (game theory), Paderborn (computer-based instruction), and Columbia (Soviet nationality problems).

His volunteer services include community development in Ghana with Operation Crossroads Africa and language teaching in Turkey with the Peace Corps. He has held offices or committee memberships in the American Political Science Association (Thesaurus Project), the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (Nationalities Project), the International Sociological Association (Research Committee on Sociolinguistics), the International Political Science Association and International Sociological Association (Committee on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis), the Esperanto Studies Association of America, the Esperantic Studies Foundation, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, Esperanto League for North America, the City of Tukwila, Washington (Strategic Economic Development Task Force and Connectivity Advisory Committee), the University of Washington Turing Center (Events Committee), Utilika Foundation (founder and president), and Berkeley Town House Cooperative Corporation (director and corporate secretary).

He has served on boards of the periodicals Language Problems and Language Planning and Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts and has reviewed proposals for the National Science Foundation, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Johns Hopkins First National Search: Personal Computing to Aid the Handicapped.

Among the courses taught by Pool have been “Quantitative Political Analysis”, “Theories of Decision Making, “Language and Politics”, and “Practical Political Research”.

In addition to research, Pool has worked as an entrepreneur, acquiring and running office buildings and equipping them with shared connectivity and other facilities, for occupancy by new and small businesses and professionals.

Jonathan Pool also has a personal site.

Research and other writing:

PanLex and panlingual interactivity

David Kamholz, Jonathan Pool, and Susan M. Colowick, “PanLex: Building a Resource for Panlingual Lexical Translation” (presented at LREC 2014, Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, 02014).

Patrick Westphal, Claus Stadler, and Jonathan Pool, “Countering language attrition with PanLex and the Web of Data” (Semantic Web Journal, 02015, 347–353). Other source.

Jonathan Pool, Susan Colowick, and Laura Welcher, “Designing a Panlingual Dictionary” (presentation at 36th Internationalization & Unicode Conference, 23 October 02012).

Jonathan Pool and Susan Colowick, “Projekto Leksilo” (presentation at Esperanto: Alia Verda Movado, 19 June 02011).

Jonathan Pool and Susan Colowick, “PanLex: A Panlingual Lexical Resource” (presentation at DELPH-IN Summit, 26 June 02011).

Jonathan Pool, “Panlingual Globalization” (prepublication version), chapter 6 in The Handbook of Language and Globalization, ed. Nikolas Coupland (Wiley-Blackwell, 02010), pp. 142–161. Other source. Publication version.

Timothy Baldwin, Jonathan Pool, and Susan M. Colowick, “PanLex and LEXTRACT: Translating all Words of all Languages of the World” (Coling 2010: Demonstration Volume, 02010, pp. 37–40). Other source.

Katherine Everitt, Christopher Lim, Oren Etzioni, Jonathan Pool, Susan Colowick, and Stephen Soderland, “Evaluating Lemmatic Communication”, trans-kom, 3, 02010, 70–84.

Jonathan Pool, “Translators in a Global Community” (prepublication version), chapter 4 in The Translator as Mediator of Cultures, ed. Humphrey Tonkin and Maria Esposito Frank (John Benjamins, 02010), pp. 73–85. Presentation slides from Symposium on Translators as Mediators of Cultures, 02006. Other source.

Stephen Soderland, Christopher Lim, Mausam, Bo Qin, Oren Etzioni, and Jonathan Pool, “Lemmatic Machine Translation” (Machine Translation Summit XII, 02009). Other source 1. Other source 2.

Jonathan Pool, “Panlingual Localization” (presentation at Localization Industry Standards Association Berkeley Globalization Conference, 02009).

Martin Hecko, Kinsley Ogunmola, Jonathan Pool, Tim Wong, and Peter Woodman, “The Panlingual Camera Phone” (manuscript, 02007).

Jonathan Pool, “Panlingual Dogfood” (manuscript, 02006).

Jonathan Pool, “Applying Conceptual Analysis in the 21st Century: Design of a Computerized System for Global Translingual Communication”. In The CONTA Conference: Proceedings of the Conference on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis of the Social Sciences, ed. Fred W. Riggs (Frankfurt am Main: INDEKS Verlag, 01982), pp. 85-99.

Language design

Jonathan Pool, “Esperanto: Utopian Flop or Practical Success?” (Berkeley Town House, 4 September 02013; presentation slides).

Adam Wyner, Krasimir Angelov, Guntis Barzdins, Danica Damljanovic, Brian Davis, Norbert Fuchs, Stefan Hoefler, Ken Jones, Kaarel Kaljurand, Tobias Kuhn, Martin Luts, Jonathan Pool, Mike Rosner, Rolf Schwitter, and John Sowa, “On Controlled Natural Languages: Properties and Prospects”, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 5972 (02010), 281–289. Other source.

Jonathan Pool, “Can Controlled Languages Scale to the Web?” (CLAW 2006 at AMTA 2006: 5th International Workshop on Controlled Language Applications, 2006). Other source 1. Other source 2. Presentation slides.

Jonathan Pool, “Web-Scale Expressivity and Ambiguity in a Translation Interlingua: The DLT Intermediate Language” (manuscript, 02006). PDF

Jonathan Pool, “Controlling Lexical Ambiguity: Ontologies for the Semantic Web” (presentation at University of Washington, Linguistics 580E, Lexical Ambiguity, 02006).

Jonathan Pool, “Linguistic Exploitation”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 103 (01993), 31-55.

Jonathan Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Linguistic Artificiality and Cognitive Competence”, in Interlinguistics: Aspects of the Science of Planned Languages, ed. Klaus Schubert (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 01989), pp. 145-156.

Jonathan Pool, “Lingviko, Politikiko kaj Ekblek” (69a Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, 01984; introduction to lecture on work reported in “Linguistic Artificiality and Cognitive Competence”, 01989).

Jonathan Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Language as Political Control: Newspeak Revisited”, delivered at 1984 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., 30 August to 2 September, 01984.

Jonathan Pool, “Two Different Languages” (manuscript, 01961).


Jonathan Pool and S. M. Colowick, “Syntactic Disambiguation for the Semantic Web” (SAAKM 2007: Semantic Authoring, Annotation and Knowledge Markup Workshop, 02007). Other source 1. Other source 2. Other source 3.

Jonathan Pool and S. M. Colowick, “Disambiguating for the Web: A Test of Two Methods” (K-CAP 2007: Fourth International Conference on Knowledge Capture, 02007). Other source. Prior version’s presentation slides.

Jonathan Pool, “Collaborative Human-Machine Disambiguation” (presentation at University of Washington Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 02005).

Jonathan Pool, Ambiguity: Some Bibliographical Notes (02005).

Jonathan Pool, “Ambiguity Control in Human-Machine Multiagent Systems: State of the Art” (manuscript, 02004).

Language policy and language choice

Jonathan Pool and Mark Fettes, “The Challenge of Interlingualism: A Research Invitation”, Esperantic Studies, 10 (Autumn 01998), 1-3. HTML version. Other source.

Jonathan Pool, “Esperanto Now!” (incomplete manuscript, 01998).

Jonathan Pool, “Optimal Language Regimes for the European Union”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 121 (01996), 159-179. Also in grkg/Humankybernetik, 36 (01995).

Jonathan Pool, “The Multilingual Election Problem”, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 4 (01992), 31-52.

Jonathan Pool, “Multilingualism versus Language Policy: Alternative Models for the EC”, presentation at Multilingualism in Europe and the US: A Communications Challenge for Transatlantic Relations and Global Business, 19 November 01992, Washington, D.C.

Reinhard Selten and Jonathan Pool, “The Distribution of Foreign Language Skills as a Game Equilibrium”, in Game Equilibrium Models, ed. Reinhard Selten, vol. 4, Social and Political Interaction (Berlin: Springer, 01991), pp. 64-87.

Jonathan Pool, “The Official Language Problem”, American Political Science Review, 85 (01991), 495-514.

Jonathan Pool and Brian McFann, “The Language Auction: A Nondiscriminatory Method of Choosing Official Languages”, Language and Society Papers, LD13 (1991). Delivered at International Symposium on Linguistic Human Rights, Tallinn, Estonia, 12-15 October 01991.

Jonathan Pool, “The World Language Problem”, Rationality and Society, 3 (01991), 78-105.

Jonathan Pool, “Language Regimes and Political Regimes”, chapter 13 in Language Policy and Political Development, ed. Brian Weinstein (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 01990), pp. 241-261.

Jonathan Pool, “A Tale of Two Tongues” (unpublished essay, 01989).

Jonathan Pool, “La nuna stato de la lingvoplaniko”, delivered at Konferenco pri Esperantologio, Rotterdam, 29 July 1988. Revised and reprinted in Akademiaj studoj 1988-1990, ed. Rüdiger Eichholz (Bailieboro, Ontario: Esperanto Press, 01990), pp. 7-15.

Jonathan Pool (ed.), “Linguistic Inequality”, special issue of Language Problems and Language Planning, 11 (1, 01987).

Jonathan Pool, “Thinking about Linguistic Discrimination”, Language Problems and Language Planning, 11 (1, 01987), 3-21.

Selma K. Sonntag and Jonathan Pool, “Linguistic Denial and Linguistic Self-Denial: American Ideologies of Language”, Language Problems and Language Planning, 11 (1, 01987), 46-65.

Jonathan Pool and Susan Dwyer-Shick, “The Language of Language Law”, delivered at 1986 Annual Meeting of the Law and Society Association, Chicago, 29 May to 1 June, 01986.

Jonathan Pool, “Optimal Strategies in Linguistic Games”, in The Fergusonian Impact, ed. Joshua A. Fishman, Michael Clyne, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Andrée Tabouret-Keller, and Bh. Krishnamurti (The Hague: Mouton, 01986), vol. 2, pp. 157-171.

Jonathan Pool, “The Pure Theory of Language Conflict”, delivered at 1986 Annual Meeting of The American Political Science Association, Washington, 28–31 August, 01986.

Jonathan Pool, “Thinking about the Optimal Number of Languages” (comment), Politics and the Life Sciences, 4 (1, 01985), 14-17.

Thomas Reese and Jonathan Pool, “Guide to Information Resources in Language Planning”, in Language Planning: An Introduction, by Carol M. Eastman (San Francisco: Chandler & Sharp, 01983), pp. 241-253. Earlier version in Language Planning Newsletter, 5 (2, 01979), 1-3, 10-12.

Reinhard Selten and Jonathan Pool, “Ĉu Mi Lernu Esperanton? Enkonduko en la Teorion de Lingvaj Ludoj” (Symmetric Equilibria in Linguistic Games)”, Nr. 112, Working Papers, Institute of Mathematical Economics, Universität Bielefeld, March, 01982. Reprinted in Interlingvistikaj Kontribuaĵoj/Beiträge zur Interlinguistik, ed. Alicia Sakaguchi (Paderborn: Esperanto-Centro e.V., Abteilung Verlag, 01981), pp. 62-117.

Jonathan Pool, “The Economics of Artificial Languages: Thoughts on the Problem of Cost Minimization”, in Angewandte Soziolinguistik, ed. Matthias Hartig (Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 01981), pp. 155-164. Abridged version of “The Economics of Artificial Languages: An Exploration in Cost Minimization”, paper delivered at Fachtagung Angewandte Soziolinguistik, Universität Paderborn, June, 01980.

Jonathan Pool, “Sprachliche Gleichheit, sprachliche Ungleichheit und Sprachdiskriminierung: Begriffe und Messung”, Grundlagenstudien aus Kybernetik und Geisteswissenschaft, 22 (01981), 69-82.

Jonathan Pool, “La ekonomiaj avantaĝoj de planlingvo: Decidteoria perspektivo”, Eŭropa Dokumentaro, 30 (1981), 21-27. Version delivered at 3-a Internacia Konference pri Esperantologio, Stockholm, 2–9 August, 01980.

Jonathan Pool, “Whose Russian Language? Problems in the Definition of a Linguistic Identity”, ch. 28 in Ethnic Russia in the USSR: The Dilemma of Dominance, ed. Edward Allworth (New York: Pergamon, 01980), 237-248.

Jonathan Pool, “Lingva Egaleco, Lingva Malegaleco, kaj Lingva Diskriminacio: Problemoj de Konceptado kaj Mezurado”, Eŭropa Dokumentaro, 28 (01980), 46-57. Version delivered at 65-a Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, Stockholm, 2–9 August, 01980.

Jonathan Pool, “Bazaj ecoj de la lingvopolitiko”, in Miscellanea Interlinguistica, ed. Szerdahelyi István (Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, 01980), 101–106.

Jonathan Pool, “Language Planning and Identity Planning”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 20 (01979), 5-21.

Jonathan Pool, “Soviet Language Planning: Goals, Results, Options”, chap. 7 in Soviet Nationality Policies and Practices, ed. Jeremy R. Azrael (New York: Praeger, 01978), 223-249. Reprinted as chap. 14 in The Soviet Nationality Reader: The Disintegration in Context, ed. Rachel Denber (Boulder, CO: Westview, 01992), pp. 331-352.

Jonathan Pool, “Elementary Models for Solving the Problem of Linguistic Diversity”, delivered at 5th International Congress of Applied Linguistics, Montréal, August, 01978.

Jonathan Pool, “Modeloj por Solvi la Lingvan Problemon” (incomplete manuscript, 01978).

Jonathan Pool, “Will the Real Russian Language Please Stand Up?”, delivered at the colloquium “Ethnic Russia: Undergoing an Identity Crisis?”, Columbia University, New York, 5–6 May 01978.

Jonathan Pool, “The Politics of Language Planning”, delivered at 10th World Congress of the International Political Science Association, Edinburgh, U.K., 16–21 August, 01976. Reprinted as Working Paper 87, International Studies Association, Comparative Interdisciplinary Studies Section (Pittsburgh: University Center for International Studies, University of Pittsburgh, October 01976).

Jonathan Pool, “Developing the Soviet Turkic Tongues: The Language of the Politics of Language”, Slavic Review, 35 (01976), 425-442.

Jonathan Pool, “The Limits of Language Planning: Lessons for and from the Soviet Union”, delivered at Eighth National Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, St. Louis, Missouri, 6–9 October, 01976.

Jonathan Pool, “Some Observations on Language Planning in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan”, Language Planning Newsletter, 2 (2, 01976), 3-6.

Jonathan Pool, “Impressions of Sociolinguistics in the Soviet Union”, Sociolinguistics Newsletter, VII (1, 01976), 1-5.

Jonathan Pool, “La Estonteco de CED: Provizora Raporto”, report submitted to Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 20 March, 01975.

Jonathan Pool, “Language and Loyalty”, delivered at VIIIth World Congress of Sociology, Toronto, 18–23 August, 01974.

Jonathan Pool, “Mass Opinion on Language Policy: The Case of Canada”, in Advances in Language Planning, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (The Hague: Mouton, 01974), 481-492. Earlier version in Language Planning: Current Issues and Research, ed. Joan Rubin and Roger Shuy (Washington: Georgetown University Press, 01973), 55-66.

Jonathan Pool, review of Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and National Language Policy in India, by Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and National Communication and Language Policy in India, by Baldev Raj Nayar, American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6, 01973), 1590–1593.

Jonathan Pool, “Language and Political Integration: Canada as a Test of Some Hypotheses”, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Political Science, The University of Chicago, September, 01971.

Jonathan Pool, “National Development and Language Diversity”, in Advances in the Sociology of Language, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (The Hague: Mouton, 01972), vol. 2, 213-230. Earlier versions in La Monda Lingvo-Problemo, 1 (01969), 140-156, and Sociologische Gids, 17 (01970), 86-101. Translation of 1969 version published as “Sviluppo nazionale e diversità linguistica”, Notiziario COSV, IV:25–26 (01973), XIV-XXIII.

Jonathan Pool, “Esperanto”, Türk Dili, 176 (01966), 563–565.

Jonathan Pool, “Grading: A Volunteer Dilemma” (Peace Corps Volunteer, IV:7, May 01966, 10–11).

Jonathan Pool, Esperanto Öğrenelim (İstanbul: Habora Kitabevi, 01966).

Jonathan Pool, Yabancı Dil Sömürücülüğü (Yön, 8 October 01965, 2).

Language technology

Jonathan Pool, “Interlingual Annotation for Machine Translation” (presentation at University of Washington Machine Translation Reading Group, 02006).

Jonathan Pool, “WordNets: What and Why?” (presentation at University of Washington Computational Linguistics Group, 02005).

Jonathan Pool, “Building a Grammar-Matrix-Based HPSG Grammar of Esperanto: Issues for Discussion” (notes from mini-presentation at University of Washington, Linguistics 567, Grammar Engineering, 02005).

Christie Evans and Jonathan Pool, “Interlingual Technology Preview” (brief prepared for Esperantic Studies Foundation, 02003).

Christie Evans and Jonathan Pool, “Interlingual Technology Overview” (presentation to Esperantic Studies Foundation, 02003).


Jonathan Pool, “Modeling Mediation” (unpublished manuscript, 01981).

Bernard Grofman and Jonathan Pool, “How to Make Cooperation the Optimizing Strategy in a Two-Person Game”, Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 5 (01977), 173–186.

Jonathan Pool, “Coalition Formation in Small Groups with Incomplete Communication Networks”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (01976), 82-91.

Jonathan Pool (ed.), Computer-Assisted Instruction in Political Science (Washington: American Political Science Association, 01976): editor and contributor. Contributions: Paul Siegel and Jonathan Pool, “Authoring Made Easier: How CAI packages Work”, ch. 3; Jonathan Pool, “Teaching Principles and Methods with CAI”, ch. 6.

Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, Elliot J. Feldman, Gregory J. Nigosian, Jonathan Pool, Allan Rosenbaum, Carlyn Rottsolk, Margaret Stapleton, Judith Van Herik, Julia Vitullo-Martin, and Thomas Vitullo-Martin, Poliscide (New York: Macmillan, 01976; Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 01990).

Jonathan Pool and Raymond R. Corrado, “Support and Alienation vis-à-vis the Political Community: Attitudes toward the Constitutional Options in Wales and Quebec”, delivered to the Research Group on Political Alienation and Support, Stanford, California, 27–30 May 01976.

Jonathan Pool, “Three Subcultures: Geographical Variation in the Structure of German Opinion” (manuscript, 01976).

Bernard Grofman and Jonathan Pool, “Bayesian Models for Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Games”, General Systems, XX (01975), 185–194.

Jonathan Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Computer Programs as a Means of Efficiency and Control in Cross-Cultural Experimental Games”, Experimental Study of Politics, IV:2 (01975), 27–57.

Jonathan Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Response to Partial Tit-for-Tat Strategies in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game” (manuscript, 01975).

Jonathan Pool, “Trip Report: One-Month Familiarization Visit to the USSR (Moscow, Baku, Ashkhabad), 30 March to 30 April, 01975, Sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR” (manuscript, 01975).

Jonathan Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Flexible Computer-Based Games in Training and Research”, delivered at 13th Annual National Gaming Council Symposium, Pittsburgh, 8–10 October 01974.

Jonathan Pool, “The Discriminability and Dimensionality of Political Support: Some Results from a German Pilot Study”, delivered to Research Group on Political Alienation and Support, Chicago, 29 August 01974.

June Starr and Jonathan Pool, “The Impact of a Legal Revolution in Rural Turkey”, Law and Society Review, 8 (Summer 01974), 533–560. Abstract. Full text.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Edward Nicholas Muller III, Opinionometer documentation (“The Opinionometer: Purposes, Design, and Operation”, “Vorrichtung zur Messung, Anzeige und Registrierung von Meinungen”), 01974–01976.

Jonathan Pool, “The Usefulness of Quantitative Methods in Political Science: the Case of Scaling and the United States Supreme Court” (B.A. thesis, Harvard University, 01964). PT

Jonathan Pool, “Weights, Measures, and Numbers” (manuscript, 01961).


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