PanLex: Research


The scientific and engineering research that enabled the PanLex project began in 02006. The questions addressed by this research include:

So far, research has found that inference algorithms applied to the PanLex data can approach the goal of panlingual lexical translation more fully than any single resource alone [7, 8]. It has also been shown that individuals forced to compose messages only as sequences of PanLex words can in large part understand each other’s intent across languages [5]. Other research produced a demonstration search engine that expanded the number, internationality, and relevance of images delivered to requesters, especially those not knowing the most widely used languages [2, 3, 4].

With its growing coverage of the world’s lexicons, researchers are also beginning to exploit PanLex as a resource [15].


[1] Timothy Baldwin, Jonathan Pool, and Susan M. Colowick, “PanLex and LEXTRACT: Translating all Words of all Languages of the World”, 02010.

[2] Janara Christensen, Mausam, and Oren Etzioni, “A Rose is a Roos is a Ruusu: Querying Translations for Web Image Search”, 02009.

[3] Susan Colowick, “Multilingual Search with PanImages”, 02008.

[4] Oren Etzioni, Kobi Reiter, Stephen Soderland, and Marcus Sammer, “Lexical Translation with Application to Image Search on the Web”, 02007.

[5] Katherine Everitt, Christopher Lim, Oren Etzioni, Jonathan Pool, Susan Colowick, and Stephen Soderland, “Evaluating Lemmatic Communication”, 02010.

[6] Christopher Lim, “Panlingual Translator”, 02009.

[7] Mausam, Stephen Soderland, Oren Etzioni, Daniel S. Weld, Michael Skinner, and Jeff Bilmes, “Compiling a Massive, Multilingual Dictionary via Probabilistic Inference”, 02009.

[8] Mausam, Stephen Soderland, Oren Etzioni, Daniel S. Weld, Kobi Reiter, Michael Skinner, and Jeff Bilmes, “Panlingual Lexical Translation via Probabilistic Inference”, 02010.

[9] Jonathan Pool, “Panlingual Globalization”, 02010.

[10] Jonathan Pool, Sourcing in PanLex, 02012.

[11] Marcus Sammer, Kobi Reiter, Stephen Soderland, Katrin Kirchhoff, and Oren Etzioni, “Ambiguity Reduction for Machine Translation: Human-Computer Collaboration”, 02006.

[12] Marcus Sammer and Stephen Soderland, “Building a Sense-Distinguished Multilingual Lexicon from Monolingual Corpora and Bilingual Lexicons”, 02007.

[13] Stephen Soderland, Christopher Lim, Mausam, Bo Qin, Oren Etzioni, and Jonathan Pool, “Lemmatic Machine Translation”, 02009.

[14] Patrick Westphal, Claus Stadler, and Jonathan Pool, “Countering language attrition with PanLex and the Web of Data”, 02015.

[15] Francesca Gola, “An analysis of translation divergence patterns using PanLex translation pairs”, 02012.

[16] Jonathan Pool, PanLex Empirical Concepticons, 02014.

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